Silicate perovskite-type phases are the most abundant constituent inside our planet and are the predominant minerals in Earth’s lower mantle more than 660 kilometers below the surface. Magnesium-rich perovskite is a major lower mantle phase and undergoes a phase transition to post-perovskite near the bottom of the mantle. Calcium-rich perovskite is proportionally minor but may host numerous trace elements that record chemical differentiation events. The properties of mantle perovskites are the key to understanding the dynamic evolution of Earth, as they strongly influence the transport properties of lower mantle rocks. Perovskites are expected to be an important constituent of rocky planets larger than Mars and thus play a major role in modulating the evolution of terrestrial planets throughout the universe.