In this study, changes in physical fatigue and biological functions of Japanese female soccer players were investigated by determining changes in neutrophil and lymphocyte functions. Study subjects included 18 female soccer players. Body composition, serum myogenic enzymes, neutrophil function, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capability, phagocytic activity (PA) and serum opsonic activity, as well as lymphocyte subpopulation were measured before and after a soccer match. Levels of myogenic enzymes (AST, ALT, CK and LDH) and immunoglobulins (IgG and IgA) and complements (C3) increased significantly after the match. In addition, leukocyte, neutrophils and lymphocyte counts increased whereas total PA decreased significantly. The number of T and Th1 cells (subsets of T helper cells) decreased whereas Th2 increased significantly. In addition, the number of B cells increased and NK cells decreased significantly after the match. The match was found to result in degenerative changes in and damage to athlete muscle tissues together with damage- and change-mediated stress. These data also suggest a post-match accelerated inflammatory reaction and potential immunosuppression as indicated by reductions in neutrophil PA and lymphocyte functions.