Key message: This study revealed different catalytic efficiencies of cyanobacterial argininosuccinate lyases in non-nitrogen-fixing and nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, demonstrating that l-arginine inhibition of l-argininosuccinate lyase is conserved among enzymes of three cyanobacterial orders. Abstract: Arginine is a nitrogen-rich amino acid that uses a nitrogen reservoir, and its biosynthesis is strictly controlled by feedback inhibition. Argininosuccinate lyase (EC 22.214.171.124) is the final enzyme in arginine biosynthesis that catalyzes the conversion of argininosuccinate to l-arginine and fumarate. Cyanobacteria synthesize intracellular cyanophycin, which is a nitrogen reservoir composed of aspartate and arginine. Arginine is an important source of nitrogen for cyanobacteria. We expressed and purified argininosuccinate lyases, ArgHs, from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, and Arthrospira platensis NIES-39. The catalytic efficiency of the Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 ArgH was 2.8-fold higher than those of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Arthrospira platensis NIES-39. All three ArgHs were inhibited in the presence of arginine, and their inhibitory effects were lowered at pH 7.0, compared to those at pH 8.0. These results indicate that arginine inhibition of ArgH is widely conserved among the three cyanobacterial orders. The current results demonstrate the conserved regulation of enzymes in the cyanobacterial aspartase/fumarase superfamily.