## Abstract

We study quantum double dark-solitons, which give pairs of notches in the density profiles, by constructing corresponding quantum states in the Lieb–Liniger model for the one-dimensional Bose gas. Here, we expect that the Gross–Pitaevskii (GP) equation should play a central role in the long distance mean-field behavior of the 1D Bose gas. We first introduce novel quantum states of a single dark soliton with a nonzero winding number. We show them by exactly evaluating not only the density profile but also the profiles of the square amplitude and phase of the matrix element of the field operator between the N-particle and (N − 1)-particle states. For elliptic double dark-solitons, the density and phase profiles of the corresponding states almost perfectly agree with those of the classical solutions, respectively, in the weak coupling regime. We then show that the scheme of the mean-field product state is quite effective for the quantum states of double dark solitons. Assigning the ideal Gaussian weights to a sum of the excited states with two particle-hole excitations, we obtain double dark-solitons of distinct narrow notches with different depths. We suggest that the mean-field product state should be well approximated by the ideal Gaussian weighted sum of the low excited states with a pair of particle-hole excitations. The results of double dark-solitons should be fundamental and useful for constructing quantum multiple dark-solitons.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 2 |

Journal | Universe |

Volume | 8 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Jan 2022 |

## Keywords

- 1D Bose gas
- Dark soliton
- Quantum soliton