Quantification of sound instability in embouchure tremor based on the time-varying fundamental frequency

André Lee, Jakob Voget, Shinichi Furuya, Masanori Morise, Eckart Altenmüller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Task-specific tremor in musicians is an involuntary oscillating muscular activity mostly of the hand or the embouchure, which predominantly occurs while playing the instrument. In contrast to arm or hand tremors, which have been examined and objectified based on movement kinematics and muscular activity, embouchure tremor has not yet been investigated. To quantify and describe embouchure tremor we analysed sound production and investigated the fluctuation of the time-varying fundamental frequency of sustained notes. A comparison between patients with embouchure tremor and healthy controls showed a significantly higher fluctuation of the fundamental frequency for the patients in the high pitch with a tremor frequency range between 3 and 8 Hz. The present findings firstly provide further information about a scarcely described movement disorder and secondly further evaluate a new quantification method for embouchure tremor, which has recently been established for embouchure dystonia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)515-521
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Neural Transmission
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016


  • Dystonia
  • Frequency analysis
  • Motor control
  • Movement disorders
  • Musicians
  • Task-specific tremor


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