Phosphorus (P) recovery from wastewater and soil is important for preventing the depletion of P resources; however, a method for recovering P from soil has not yet been developed. We designed and tested systems to recover P from excavated and in situ soil. P extraction from soil using citric acid, EDTA, and water is combined with P retention by calcium (Ca)- and magnesium (Mg)-containing material in both the batch extraction-retention and column percolation approach. In the batch extraction-retention test, Ca hydroxide retained more P than the other materials at 0.38–0.76 mg g−1, and the P was retained as Ca phosphate-like minerals. The amount of P retained by materials using chelating solutions was higher than with water, regardless of the material. The amount of P in the Ca-containing materials after the column percolation test was higher than in the Mg-containing materials, with the exception of Ca carbonate. In the column percolation test, the percentage of P recovery from the available P in the soil was 4.9% and 3.5% using Ca hydroxide and Ca oxide with water, respectively, and the application of chelating solutions did not improve P recovery. In the batch extraction-retention test, the percentage of P recovery using Ca hydroxide and Ca oxide with water was the same as that obtained by the column percolation test; however, the use of chelating solutions could improve the P retention to more than 11% and 7%, respectively. These results demonstrate that more than 10% and 5% of the available P in the soil could be recovered using Ca hydroxide in the batch extraction-retention test with citric acid and EDTA solutions and the column percolation test with water, respectively. The P-retained material may be used as a source for the production of chemical fertilizer.
- Citric acid
- Un-saturated percolation