Oxygen Precipitation Behavior in n-Type Cz-Si Related to Carbon Concentration and Crystal Growth Conditions

Tappei Nishihara, Kohei Onishi, Yoshio Ohshita, Atsushi Ogura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The behavior of oxide precipitates during solar cell fabrication processes and the resulting effect on device performance have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. Samples were prepared with different carbon concentration and under different crystal growth conditions, namely using the conventional and an advanced process. The density of oxide precipitates increased monotonically with the carbon concentration, while the cell efficiency improved with decreasing oxygen precipitate density. When the carbon concentration was reduced to below 1016 cm−3, the oxide precipitates grew largely and dislocations were introduced. TEM observations confirmed that the morphology of the oxide precipitates clearly differed depending on the crystal growth conditions. Precipitates grown in platelet form introduced high density dislocations in their surroundings, while the dislocation density was relatively lower around polyhedral-type precipitates. These results thus reveal that oxygen precipitation can be controlled by varying the crystal growth conditions, possibly contributing to the production of high-efficiency solar cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1474-1481
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Cz-silicon
  • TEM
  • crystal growth
  • oxygen precipitation
  • solar cell

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