The purpose of this research is to develop structural health monitoring technology based on the strain mapping of composite airframe structures through their life cycles. We conducted the evaluation tests for damage detection in CFRP pressure bulkheads using FBG sensors and verified the damage detection ability and accuracy of FBG sensors on various modes of damages and deformation. As a result, damages and deformation can be detected as the changes in strain distribution measured by FBG sensors. Moreover, these changes agree well with numerical simulation. These results demonstrate that the strain mapping by FBG sensors can be used for damage detection of the CFRP pressure bulkhead.