Deficiency of Circulating Monocytes Ameliorates the Progression of Myxomatous Valve Degeneration in Marfan Syndrome

Andrew J. Kim, Na Xu, Kazuhiro Umeyama, Alexia Hulin, Sithara Raju Ponny, Ronald J. Vagnozzi, Ellis A. Green, Paul Hanson, Bruce M. McManus, Hiroshi Nagashima, Katherine E. Yutzey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Myxomatous valve degeneration (MVD) involves the progressive thickening and degeneration of the heart valves, leading to valve prolapse, regurgitant blood flow, and impaired cardiac function. Leukocytes composed primarily of macrophages have recently been detected in myxomatous valves, but the timing of the presence and the contributions of these cells in MVD progression are not known. METHODS: We examined MVD progression, macrophages, and the valve microenvironment in the context of Marfan syndrome (MFS) using mitral valves from MFS mice (Fbn1C1039G/+), gene-edited MFS pigs (FBN1Glu433AsnfsX98/+), and patients with MFS. Additional histological and transcriptomic evaluation was performed by using nonsyndromic human and canine myxomatous valves, respectively. Macrophage ontogeny was determined using MFS mice transplanted with mTomato+ bone marrow or MFS mice harboring RFP (red fluorescent protein)-tagged C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) monocytes. Mice deficient in recruited macrophages (Fbn1C1039G/+;Ccr2RFP/RFP) were generated to determine the requirements of recruited macrophages to MVD progression. RESULTS: MFS mice recapitulated histopathological features of myxomatous valve disease by 2 months of age, including mitral valve thickening, increased leaflet cellularity, and extracellular matrix abnormalities characterized by proteoglycan accumulation and collagen fragmentation. Diseased mitral valves of MFS mice concurrently exhibited a marked increase of infiltrating (MHCII+, CCR2+) and resident macrophages (CD206+, CCR2-), along with increased chemokine activity and inflammatory extracellular matrix modification. Likewise, mitral valve specimens obtained from gene-edited MFS pigs and human patients with MFS exhibited increased monocytes and macrophages (CD14+, CD64+, CD68+, CD163+) detected by immunofluorescence. In addition, comparative transcriptomic evaluation of both genetic (MFS mice) and acquired forms of MVD (humans and dogs) unveiled a shared upregulated inflammatory response in diseased valves. Remarkably, the deficiency of monocytes was protective against MVD progression, resulting in a significant reduction of MHCII macrophages, minimal leaflet thickening, and preserved mitral valve integrity. CONCLUSIONS: All together, our results suggest sterile inflammation as a novel paradigm to disease progression, and we identify, for the first time, monocytes as a viable candidate for targeted therapy in MVD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-146
Number of pages15
JournalCirculation
Volume141
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2020

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Marfan Syndrome
Monocytes
Macrophages
Mitral Valve
CC Chemokines
Chemokine Receptors
Extracellular Matrix
Swine
Prolapse
Heart Valves
Proteoglycans
Protein C
Chemokines
Genes
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Disease Progression
Canidae
Leukocytes
Collagen
Bone Marrow

Keywords

  • extracellular matrix
  • inflammation
  • macrophages
  • Marfan syndrome
  • mitral valve
  • mitral valve prolapse
  • monocytes

Cite this

Kim, Andrew J. ; Xu, Na ; Umeyama, Kazuhiro ; Hulin, Alexia ; Ponny, Sithara Raju ; Vagnozzi, Ronald J. ; Green, Ellis A. ; Hanson, Paul ; McManus, Bruce M. ; Nagashima, Hiroshi ; Yutzey, Katherine E. / Deficiency of Circulating Monocytes Ameliorates the Progression of Myxomatous Valve Degeneration in Marfan Syndrome. In: Circulation. 2020 ; Vol. 141, No. 2. pp. 132-146.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Myxomatous valve degeneration (MVD) involves the progressive thickening and degeneration of the heart valves, leading to valve prolapse, regurgitant blood flow, and impaired cardiac function. Leukocytes composed primarily of macrophages have recently been detected in myxomatous valves, but the timing of the presence and the contributions of these cells in MVD progression are not known. METHODS: We examined MVD progression, macrophages, and the valve microenvironment in the context of Marfan syndrome (MFS) using mitral valves from MFS mice (Fbn1C1039G/+), gene-edited MFS pigs (FBN1Glu433AsnfsX98/+), and patients with MFS. Additional histological and transcriptomic evaluation was performed by using nonsyndromic human and canine myxomatous valves, respectively. Macrophage ontogeny was determined using MFS mice transplanted with mTomato+ bone marrow or MFS mice harboring RFP (red fluorescent protein)-tagged C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) monocytes. Mice deficient in recruited macrophages (Fbn1C1039G/+;Ccr2RFP/RFP) were generated to determine the requirements of recruited macrophages to MVD progression. RESULTS: MFS mice recapitulated histopathological features of myxomatous valve disease by 2 months of age, including mitral valve thickening, increased leaflet cellularity, and extracellular matrix abnormalities characterized by proteoglycan accumulation and collagen fragmentation. Diseased mitral valves of MFS mice concurrently exhibited a marked increase of infiltrating (MHCII+, CCR2+) and resident macrophages (CD206+, CCR2-), along with increased chemokine activity and inflammatory extracellular matrix modification. Likewise, mitral valve specimens obtained from gene-edited MFS pigs and human patients with MFS exhibited increased monocytes and macrophages (CD14+, CD64+, CD68+, CD163+) detected by immunofluorescence. In addition, comparative transcriptomic evaluation of both genetic (MFS mice) and acquired forms of MVD (humans and dogs) unveiled a shared upregulated inflammatory response in diseased valves. Remarkably, the deficiency of monocytes was protective against MVD progression, resulting in a significant reduction of MHCII macrophages, minimal leaflet thickening, and preserved mitral valve integrity. CONCLUSIONS: All together, our results suggest sterile inflammation as a novel paradigm to disease progression, and we identify, for the first time, monocytes as a viable candidate for targeted therapy in MVD.",
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Kim, AJ, Xu, N, Umeyama, K, Hulin, A, Ponny, SR, Vagnozzi, RJ, Green, EA, Hanson, P, McManus, BM, Nagashima, H & Yutzey, KE 2020, 'Deficiency of Circulating Monocytes Ameliorates the Progression of Myxomatous Valve Degeneration in Marfan Syndrome', Circulation, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 132-146. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.042391

Deficiency of Circulating Monocytes Ameliorates the Progression of Myxomatous Valve Degeneration in Marfan Syndrome. / Kim, Andrew J.; Xu, Na; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Hulin, Alexia; Ponny, Sithara Raju; Vagnozzi, Ronald J.; Green, Ellis A.; Hanson, Paul; McManus, Bruce M.; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Yutzey, Katherine E.

In: Circulation, Vol. 141, No. 2, 14.01.2020, p. 132-146.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Deficiency of Circulating Monocytes Ameliorates the Progression of Myxomatous Valve Degeneration in Marfan Syndrome

AU - Kim, Andrew J.

AU - Xu, Na

AU - Umeyama, Kazuhiro

AU - Hulin, Alexia

AU - Ponny, Sithara Raju

AU - Vagnozzi, Ronald J.

AU - Green, Ellis A.

AU - Hanson, Paul

AU - McManus, Bruce M.

AU - Nagashima, Hiroshi

AU - Yutzey, Katherine E.

PY - 2020/1/14

Y1 - 2020/1/14

N2 - BACKGROUND: Myxomatous valve degeneration (MVD) involves the progressive thickening and degeneration of the heart valves, leading to valve prolapse, regurgitant blood flow, and impaired cardiac function. Leukocytes composed primarily of macrophages have recently been detected in myxomatous valves, but the timing of the presence and the contributions of these cells in MVD progression are not known. METHODS: We examined MVD progression, macrophages, and the valve microenvironment in the context of Marfan syndrome (MFS) using mitral valves from MFS mice (Fbn1C1039G/+), gene-edited MFS pigs (FBN1Glu433AsnfsX98/+), and patients with MFS. Additional histological and transcriptomic evaluation was performed by using nonsyndromic human and canine myxomatous valves, respectively. Macrophage ontogeny was determined using MFS mice transplanted with mTomato+ bone marrow or MFS mice harboring RFP (red fluorescent protein)-tagged C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) monocytes. Mice deficient in recruited macrophages (Fbn1C1039G/+;Ccr2RFP/RFP) were generated to determine the requirements of recruited macrophages to MVD progression. RESULTS: MFS mice recapitulated histopathological features of myxomatous valve disease by 2 months of age, including mitral valve thickening, increased leaflet cellularity, and extracellular matrix abnormalities characterized by proteoglycan accumulation and collagen fragmentation. Diseased mitral valves of MFS mice concurrently exhibited a marked increase of infiltrating (MHCII+, CCR2+) and resident macrophages (CD206+, CCR2-), along with increased chemokine activity and inflammatory extracellular matrix modification. Likewise, mitral valve specimens obtained from gene-edited MFS pigs and human patients with MFS exhibited increased monocytes and macrophages (CD14+, CD64+, CD68+, CD163+) detected by immunofluorescence. In addition, comparative transcriptomic evaluation of both genetic (MFS mice) and acquired forms of MVD (humans and dogs) unveiled a shared upregulated inflammatory response in diseased valves. Remarkably, the deficiency of monocytes was protective against MVD progression, resulting in a significant reduction of MHCII macrophages, minimal leaflet thickening, and preserved mitral valve integrity. CONCLUSIONS: All together, our results suggest sterile inflammation as a novel paradigm to disease progression, and we identify, for the first time, monocytes as a viable candidate for targeted therapy in MVD.

AB - BACKGROUND: Myxomatous valve degeneration (MVD) involves the progressive thickening and degeneration of the heart valves, leading to valve prolapse, regurgitant blood flow, and impaired cardiac function. Leukocytes composed primarily of macrophages have recently been detected in myxomatous valves, but the timing of the presence and the contributions of these cells in MVD progression are not known. METHODS: We examined MVD progression, macrophages, and the valve microenvironment in the context of Marfan syndrome (MFS) using mitral valves from MFS mice (Fbn1C1039G/+), gene-edited MFS pigs (FBN1Glu433AsnfsX98/+), and patients with MFS. Additional histological and transcriptomic evaluation was performed by using nonsyndromic human and canine myxomatous valves, respectively. Macrophage ontogeny was determined using MFS mice transplanted with mTomato+ bone marrow or MFS mice harboring RFP (red fluorescent protein)-tagged C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) monocytes. Mice deficient in recruited macrophages (Fbn1C1039G/+;Ccr2RFP/RFP) were generated to determine the requirements of recruited macrophages to MVD progression. RESULTS: MFS mice recapitulated histopathological features of myxomatous valve disease by 2 months of age, including mitral valve thickening, increased leaflet cellularity, and extracellular matrix abnormalities characterized by proteoglycan accumulation and collagen fragmentation. Diseased mitral valves of MFS mice concurrently exhibited a marked increase of infiltrating (MHCII+, CCR2+) and resident macrophages (CD206+, CCR2-), along with increased chemokine activity and inflammatory extracellular matrix modification. Likewise, mitral valve specimens obtained from gene-edited MFS pigs and human patients with MFS exhibited increased monocytes and macrophages (CD14+, CD64+, CD68+, CD163+) detected by immunofluorescence. In addition, comparative transcriptomic evaluation of both genetic (MFS mice) and acquired forms of MVD (humans and dogs) unveiled a shared upregulated inflammatory response in diseased valves. Remarkably, the deficiency of monocytes was protective against MVD progression, resulting in a significant reduction of MHCII macrophages, minimal leaflet thickening, and preserved mitral valve integrity. CONCLUSIONS: All together, our results suggest sterile inflammation as a novel paradigm to disease progression, and we identify, for the first time, monocytes as a viable candidate for targeted therapy in MVD.

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