We demonstrated the cytotoxicity of glyceraldehyde-related Maillard reaction products for HL-60 cells. Glyceraldehyde-modified bovine serum albumin and glyceraldehyde-modified casein inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells. The reaction products formed from glyceraldehyde and Nα- acetyllysine had also a cytotoxic effect on HL-60 cells. The cytotoxic effect was prevented by N-acetylcysteine or pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate as the antioxidants. In addition, the reaction products depressed the intracellular glutathione level, and induced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These results suggested that the glyceraldehyde-related advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induced the cytotoxicity and the oxidative stress. We previously reported that the glyceraldehyde-related AGE was identified as 1-(5-acetylamino-5-carboxypentyl)-3-hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyridinium, named GLAP (glyceraldehyde-derived pyridinium compound), formed from glyceraldehyde and Nα-acetyllysine (Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 67, 930-932 (2003)). In this study, GLAP inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells, and the inhibitory effect was prevented by the antioxidants. Furthermore, GLAP depressed the intracellular glutathione level, and induced the ROS production. This work indicated the possibility that the cytotoxicity and the oxidative stress in the progression of diabetic complications and chronic renal disease might be induced by GLAP.
- Advanced glycation end products
- Maillard reaction
- Oxidative stress