Membrane vesicles (MVs) are formed in various microorganisms triggered by physiological and environmental phenomena. In this study, we have discovered that the biogenesis of MV took place in the recombinant cell of Escherichia coli BW25113 strain that intracellularly accumulates microbial polyester, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). This discovery was achieved as a trigger of foam formation during the microbial PHB fermentation. The purified MVs were existed as a mixture of outer MVs and outer/inner MVs, revealed by transmission electron microscopy. It should be noted that there was a good correlation between MV formation and PHB production level that can be finely controlled by varying glucose concentrations, suggesting the causal relationship in both supramolecules artificially produced in the microbial platform. Notably, the controllable secretion of MV was governed spatiotemporally through the morphological change of the E. coli cells caused by the PHB intracellular accumulation. Based on a hypothesis of PHB internal-pressure dependent envelope-disorder induced MV biogenesis, here we propose a new Polymer Intracellular Accumulation-triggered system for MV Production (designated “PIA-MVP”) with presenting a mechanistic model for MV biogenesis. The PIA-MVP is a promising microbial platform that will provides us with a significance for further study focusing on biopolymer capsulation and cross-membrane transportation for different application purposes.