Center Manifold Theory for the Motions of Camphor Boats with Delta Function

Kota Ikeda, Shin Ichiro Ei

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Various collective motions of camphor boats have been studied. Camphor boats are self-driven particles that interact with each other through the change of surface tension on water surface by camphor molecules. Consequently, even in a one-dimensional circuit, a congested state or jamming can be observed (Suematsu et al. in Phys Rev E 81:056210, 2010). In this phenomenon, the unidirectional motion of each particle is considered a traveling wave, and the concentration of camphor molecules forms a pulse shape. Hence, each pair of particles interacts with each other like a pulse–pulse interaction. Thus, we expect that the center manifold theories proposed in Ei (J Dyn Differ Equ 14:85–137, 2002) and Ei et al. (Physica D 165:176–198 2002) are applicable for the analysis of the collective motion of camphor boats. However, spatial discontinuity in our model, in particular the existence of Dirac delta functions in a linearized operator, does not fulfill the requirement in the reduction process because the authors developed their theories in L2-framework and for smooth nonlinearity in Ei (2002) and Ei et al. (2002). In this article, we extend the results obtained in Ei (2002) and Ei et al. (2002) and establish a new center manifold approach in (H1)∗-framework. Finally, we succeed to rigorously reduce a mathematical model (Nagayama et al. in Physica D: Nonlinear Phenom 194:151–165, 2004) coupled with a Newtonian equation and a reaction–diffusion equation including delta functions to an ordinary differential system that represents the motions of camphor boats.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)621-657
Number of pages37
JournalJournal of Dynamics and Differential Equations
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Bifurcation
  • Center manifold theory
  • Collective motion
  • Traveling wave solution

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