Three putative oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) genes exist in the genome of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus that produces a steroidal antibiotic, helvolic acid. One of these genes, Afu4g14770, designated AfuOSC3, is clustered with genes of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), a short-chain dehydrogenase/ reductase (SDR), and acyltransferases, which presumably function in triterpene tailoring steps, suggesting that this gene cluster codes for helvolic acid biosynthesis. AfuOSC3 was PCR amplified from A. fumigatus IFO8866 genomic DNA and expressed in yeast. The yeast transformant accumulated protosta- 17(20)Z,24-dien-3β-ol, an established precursor for helvolic acid. Its structural isomer, (20R)-protosta-13(17),24-dien-3β-ol, was also isolated from the transformed yeast. To further identify the function of triterpene tailoring enzymes, four P450 genes (CYP5081A1-D1) and a SDR gene (AfuSDR1) in the cluster were each coexpressed with AfuOSC3 in yeast. As a result, coexpression of AfuSDR1 gave a 3-keto derivative of protostadienol. On the other hand, coexpression with CYP5081A1 gave protosta-17(20)Z,24-diene-3β,29- diol and protosta-17(20)Z,24-dien-3β-ol-29-oic acid. These metabolites are in well accord with the oxidative modification involved in helvolic acid biosynthesis. AfuSDR1 and CYP5081A1 presumably function together to catalyze demethylation of C-29 methyl group. These results provided a firm ground for identification of the present gene cluster to be involved in helvolic acid biosynthesis.